Endourology is a minimally invasive approach for treating primarily kidney stones, but also other urologic conditions, such as transitional cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract and ureteral strictures and other disorders obstructing the urinary flow. Even though this discipline is well established in urological practice since more 2 decades, actually a sort of revolution is taking place. First of all, after more than 20 years the position for PCNL is gradually changing from prone position to supine position challenging one of the most important “caveat” of percutaneous surgery. Second, the progressive advancements in endourological armamentarium together with downsizing of flexible ureteroscopes and the advent of digital technology has supplied retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for renal calculi with new potentiality. As such, an ever growing number of renal stones can be managed ureteroscopically.

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